Anmerkungen

1 On the response of US diplomats to the declaration of war, see Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States. 1914 Supplement. The World War (Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1928), 16-48.

2 “How the War Affects America,” The Literary Digest LXIV(August 15, 1914), 256.

3 “The War News For Busy Readers,” Times-Union (August 3, 1914). Some Aspects of War” Times-Union (August 4, 1914).

4 “Who Is Responsible?” The Outlook (September 30, 1914), 245. There was some effort at the time to gauge public opinion; see, for example, “American Opinion on the War. A Poll of the Press,” The Outlook 107(15 August 1914), 907-908, which did just that, survey a range of newspapers and magazines. Dale E. Zacher, The Scripps Newspapers Go to War, 1914-18 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008), 20-22, 26, 33-50.

5 “Europe’s War and America’s Sympathies,” Current Opinion LVII (October 1914), 221. “The War in Europe. An International Symposium,” The Outlook 107(15 August 1914), 897-907.

6 “Germany Interpreted By a German-American,” The Outlook 107(22 August 1914),954-956. “Europe’s War and America’s Sympathies,” 221. “Europe Appealing to America,” The Literary Digest LXIX(September 19, 1914), 495-496. “Ridder on War Situation,” Times-Union (September 13, 1914); Hermann Ridder was the editor of New York City’s German language newspaper, the Staats-Zeitung.

7 “Europe’s War and America’s Sympathies,” 221. Enclosure II, Telegram from the Belgian Ministry for Foreign Affairs to the Belgium Minister in Washington, in Arthur Link, editor, The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, May 6-September 5,1914 (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1979), 458. A Draft of a Reply to William II; Remarks to the Belgian Commissioner; and Poincaire’s Telegram, Enclosure (translation), September 10, 1914, in Arthur Link, editor, The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 31, September 6 – December 31, 1914 (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1979), 32-33, 33-34, 38-39.

8 See Fraser J. Harbutt, “War Peace, and Commerce. The American Reacton to the Outbreak of World War I in Europe 1914,” in Holger Afflerbach & David Stevenson, An Improbable War. The Outbreak of World War I and European Political Culture before 1914 (New York: Berghahn Books, 2007), 320-334. On the issue of public opinion, see James Davenport Whelpley, American Public Opinion (New York: E.P. Dunton & Company, 1914), a collection of his essays on opinion on international issues. Published in May 1914, before the outbreak of war, the book was an early effort to gauge public sentiment on international issues.

9 For a fuller discussion of these issues, see Ross A. Kennedy, The Will to Believe. Woodrow Wilson, World War I, and America’s Strategy for Peace and Security (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2009), 1-24. Kennedy differentiates between what he identifies as the pacifists who saw the arms races and diplomatic issues that led to war as an European issue and who were convinced that America was largely insulated from the war by geography, the liberal interventionists who feared a German victory, and the Atlanticists who viewed a German victory as posing a serious threat to America. James Hay, “The War Terror,” Sunday Star (Washington D.C.) (January 10, 1915), reprinted in Congressional Record Appendix and Index, 63rd Congress, 3rd Session, Volume LII, Park VI, 103-105. See the collection of newspaper articles written by former president Theodore Roosevelt, a vocal proponent of preparedness, America and the World War (NY: Scribner’s Sons, 1915).

10 “The War and the Dangers of the Future,” The Living Age 275(November 16, 1912), 433-437; the quote is from page 433.

11 Guglielmo Ferrero, “The Dangers of War in Europe,” The Atlantic Monthly 111(January 1913), 1-9; quote is from page 4.

12 Whelpley, American Public Opinion, 28-38, 260, 264.

13 “The Increase of Disquiet in Europe,” The Living Age 280(March 7, 1914), 626-628.

14 “Germany’s War Scar From Russia,” The Literary Digest 48(April 4, 1914), 749-750.

15 “Final Moves For Peace in Europe,” San Francisco Chronicle (August 1, 1914). “Reports of Ultimatum By Kaiser Offset By Peace Hope,” Boston Daily Globe (August 1, 1914). “Financiers Serve Notice On Powers There Will Be No Money to Carry on General War,” Times-Union (August 1, 1914).

16 “Travelers Think War Was Forced on Kaiser,” Atlanta Constitution (September 8, 1914). Even the regional press queried locals, see “Albanians Who Are In Europe,” Times-Union (August 1, 1914).

17 “American Opinion of the War. A Poll of the Press,” The Outlook 107(August 15, 1914), 907. “What Readers of The Outlook Think of The War,” The Outlook 107(September 2, 1914), 44-47.

18 “The Military Preparedness,” The Nation 99(August 6, 1914), 150. Samuel Taylor Moore, America and the World War (New York: Greenberg Publishers, 1937), 2, 9.

19 The Ambassador in Great Britain (Page) to the Secretary of State, London, August 6, 1914, in Foreign Relations, 1914, Supplement, 46.

20 “Reports of Ultimatum By Kaiser Offset Peace Hope,” New York Times (August 1, 1914). “Assurances From Germany Give Hope of Compromise,” Atlantic Constitution (August 1, 1914). See also, “All Military Eyes Fixed on War Stage,” New York Times (August 1, 1914).

21 “How the War Rages,” Washington Post (September 2, 1914). “The War Situation,” Times-Union (August 1, 1914). “Summary of War News,” New York Times (September 2, 1914). “The War News For Busy Readers,” Times-Union (August 3, 1914). “Germany the Gainer in Military Advantage,” Los Angeles Times (September 2, 1914). “Field at Liege Blood-Soaked,” Los Angeles Times (September 2, 1914). “Allies’ Left Forced Back as Germans Concentrate Attack,” Christian Science Monitor (September 2, 1914).

22 “Why Europe Is At War,” The Atlantic Monthly XLIX(August 7, 1914), 253. “The Germans in France,” The Literary Digest XLIX(September 5, 1914), 400-401.

23 “Some Aspects of the War,” Times-Union (August 4, 1914).

24 Roland G. Usher, “The Reasons Behind the War,” Atlantic Monthly 114(1914), 444. Roland G. Usher, Pan- Germanism (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1913), 1, 4, passim. Roland G. Usher, The Story of the Great War (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1919), 3-16.

25 “Military Preparedness,” 151-152.

26 “The War in Belgium,” The Literary Digest XLIX(August 22, 1914). 289-294. “The Greatest War of History Breaks Over Europe,” Current Opinion LVII(September 1914), 149-153. “How the War Wages,” Washington Post (September 2, 1914). “Summary of War News,” New York Times (September 2, 1914). “Germany the Gainer in Military Advantage,” Los Angeles Times (September 2, 1914). “Allies Left Forced Back As Germans Concentrate Attack,” Christian Science Monitor (September 2, 1914). “The Germans in France,” TheLiterary Digest LXIX(September 5,1914), 399-406.

27 Quoted in “Why Europe Is At War,” 253. “Powers Looked for a War Excuse,” Times-Union (August28, 1914).

28 H.C.G. von Jagemann, “Germany’s Struggle for Existence,” The Outlook 108(September 16, 1914), 144-145. “Bavaria in War Time,” The Outlook 108(September 30, 1914), 251-253. “Germany’s Object in the War as Interpreted by a Prussian Military Officer,” The Outlook 108(September 9, 1914), 68-71. “With the Germans in Belgium,” The Outlook 108(September 16, 1914), 139-143. See, “Appeal of Warring Nations to American Sentiment” and “German Efforts to Influence American Opinion,” in Current Opinion LVII (October, 1914), 222ff.

29 Ernst Richard, “The German Point of View of the War,” The Outlook 107(August 15, 1914), 903-904. “Berlin Is Gone War Mad,” Times-Union (August 1, 1914). See also “Germany Interpreted By a German-American,” The Outlook 107(August 22, 1914), 954-956.

30 “Blaming Germany for the War,” The Literary Digest (August 22, 1914), 293. “Mr. Ridder On War Situation,” Times-Union (September 19, 1914).

31 “Blaming Germany for the War,” 293. “Germany Ready To Fight the World To Protect Her Honor,” Times-Union (August 4, 191).

32 Quoted in “American Sentiment and the German Viewpoint,” Current Opinion LVII (September 1914), 150.

33 “German Appeal to America,” The Nation 99(October 15, 1914), 455.

34 Ibid. “Truth About Germany. Facts About the War,” emphasis in original, 6, 86.

35 Quoted in “Mr. Ridder On War Situation,” Times-Union (September 19, 1914).

36 “War Rally Here By German-Americans,” New York Times (September 28, 1914).

37 See, for example, “The ‘Anti-German’ Press,” The Nation 99(August 20 1914), 221-222; “Professor Darmstaedter Replies,” “England’s Violation of Neutral Territory,” and “Argument From Germany,” The Nation 99(November 4, 1914), 548-549.

38 “German Appeals to America,” 455. “British Lies and American Sentiment,” The Nation 99(November 26, 1914), 621. See, Joseph Meditt Patterson, “Germans Adhere to Laws of War,” Chicago Daily Tribune (September 26, 1914).

39 Hugo Müsterberg, The War and America (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1914), 19. See the response by John Cowper Powys, The War and Culture. A Reply to Professor Münstenberg (New York: G. Arnold Shaw, 1914), who rejected Müstenberg’s assertions that “Germany’s preparations for war were purely defensive; [and] second, that Germany’s defeat in the war would mean a devastating blow for culture, and a disastrous set-back to the best interests of humanity.”

40 Müsterberg, The War and America, 205-207, 209-210.

41 “German Appeals to America,” 455-456.

42 Ross A. Kennedy, The Will to Believe. Woodrow Wilson, World I, and America’s Strategy for Peace and Security (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2009), 12-14.

43 See, for example, “The War in Belgium,” The Literary Digest XLIX(August 22, 1914), 289-290. “The War in Europe. An International Symposium,” The Outlook 107(August 15, 1914), 896-907.

44 Whelpley, “Courting of America,” 323-324. “England Still Makes … Favorite Weapon, Says Staats-Zeitung,” Washington Post (September 28, 1914).

45 “The American Attitude,” The Saturday Review, reprinted in The Living Age 283(October 3, 1914), 52-53.

46 “Europe’s War and American Sympathies,” 224.

47 Ibid., 223.

48 Usher, “Reasons Behind the War,” 444-445.

49 Ibid. See also, “Why Europe Is At War,” The Literary Digest XLIX(August 15, 1914), 254-262. “The Quarrel Between Britain, Austria-Hungary, and Servia,” The Nation 99(August 13, 1914), 186.

50 Usher, “Reasons Behind the War,” 446-448. For a differing view, see Constantin Theodor Dumba, Ambassador of Austria-Hungry, “The Austro-Servian Conflict,” The Outlook 107(August 29, 1914), 1028.

51 “Why Europe Is At War,” 253-254. See also, “The Lust of Empire,” The Nation 99(October 22, 1914), 493. “The Responsibility For War,” The Nation 99(August 6, 1914), 151. “Blaming Germany for the War,” The Literary Digest XLIX(August 21, 1914), 293-294. “German Jingoism,” The Outlook 97(April 22, 1911), 8-9.

52 Quoted in “Why Europe Is At War” 254.

53 “The War Against Popular Rights,” The Outlook 107(August 15, 1914), 891. See Ernst Richard, “The German Point of View of the War,” The Outlook 107(August 15, 1914), 903-905. Frederic William Hale, “The Germans and the War. The People and the Kriegspartei,” The Outlook 107(September 2, 1914), 36-38. Maurice Parmelee, “An American In ‘Berlin,” The Outlook 107(September 2, 1914), 38.

54 Bernadotte E. Schmitt, “Made in Germany,” The Nation 99(August 27, 1914), 251. See also the response of The Nation’s Editor, “The Real Crime Against Germany,” The Nation 99(August 13, 1914), 111; and the editorial, “The War’s Motives,” Times-Union (August 5, 1914).

55 “American Opinion on the War, 907. See, “Germany Interpreted By a German-American,” The Outlook 107(August 22, 1914), 954-956.

56 Karl F. Geiser, letter, “The Anti-German Press,” The Nation 99(August 20, 1914), 221-212.

57 “Ridder on War Situation,” Times-Union (September 13, 1914).

58 “Why Europe Is At War,” 255.

59 James Davenport Whelpley, “The Courting of America.”

60 “How The War Affects America,” The Literary Digest XLIX (August 15, 1914), 256. Kennedy, Will to Believe, 26-29.

61 Quoted in “How The War Affects America,” 256.

62 “Europe’s Call to Arms,” The Literary Digest XLIX (August 8, 1914), 215.

63 “The Financial Side,” The Literary Digest XLIX (August 15, 1914), 257.

64 Gilson Gardner, “War Effects and Finance,” Times-Union (August 13, 1914). See, “War and Our Merchant Marine,” The Literary Digest LXIX (August 22, 1914), 290-293

65 “Stock Exchange May Open in a Few Weeks, Says Adams,” Wall Street Journal (September 2, 1914). Gilson Gardner, “War Effects and Finance,” Times-Union (August 13, 1914).

66 Alba B. Johnson, “America’s Industries as Affected by the European War,” American Academy of Political and Social Sciences (hereafter AAPSS) 61(September 1914), 1. Joseph French Johnson, “The Probable Condition of the American Money Market After the War is Over,” AAPSS 60(1915), 133. Johnson was very concerned about the impact of the war, which he anticipated as lasting six months, on America’s capital market as funds would be taken by the European powers to finance their war efforts.

67 A.B. Leach, “The Effect of the European War on American Business,” AAPSS 60(1915), 143-144.

68 “Unlimited Millions Available to Banks to Meet Any Crisis” and “Gold Supply Fully Safeguarded,” Times-Union (August 3,1914).

69 A News Report (August 1, 1914) New Shipping Bill Will be Pushed Through Monday, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 325-326. “Wilson Would Protect Shipping of the World,” Atlantic Constitution (August 1, 1914). “How the War Affects America,” 256.

70 Quoted in “How the War Affects America,” 256. Gardner, “War Effects and Finance.”

71 “American’s Loss and Gain in Europe’s War,” The Literary Digest 49(August 29, 1914), 330.

72 Joseph French Johnson quotes are from New York’s Evening Post newspaper and were cited in “America’s Loss and Gain in Europe’s War,” 330. “How We Will Gain and Lose by War. Dean Johnson Sees Opportunities for Us to Extend Our Financial Influence,” New York Times (September 6, 1914). From Henry Lee Higginson to Woodrow Wilson, August 20, 1914, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 420-421.

73 Quoted in “America’s Loss and Gain.”

74 “How We Will Gain and Lose by War.” Johnson added his voice to the debate over responsibility for the war: he wrote that Germany had increased its holdings of gold from $194 million in 1913 to $336 million in mid-July 1914, a “highly significant” measure from “one of the world’s powers [that] deliberately planned and promoted this war.”

75 “House Committee Will Ask Ruling On Sale of American War Supplies,” Washington Post (September 2, 1914).

76 “How We Will Gain and Lose by War.” “Expert Estimates Profit and Loss to U.S. by War,” Chicago Daily Tribune (August 17, 1914). “Credit Problem Thorn in Side of Trade Conquest,” Chicago Daily Tribune (September 5, 1914).

77 “Business Is Improving, President Wilson Hears,” Chicago Daily Tribune (October 10, 1914). Arthur Sears Henning, “U.S. To Protect Export Shippers, Wilson Assures,” Chicago Daily Tribune (October 13, 1914).

78 Arthur Sears Henning, “Americans Free To Ship Supplies to Belligerents,” Chicago Daily Tribune (October 15, 19114).

79 “Stock Exchange May Open in a Few Weeks.”

80 From William Gibbs McAdoo, September 2, 1914; and An Address to a Joint Session of Congress, September 4, 1914 in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 467-468, 473-474. “Pay War’s Toll, President Urges,” Washington Post (September 5, 1914). “What We Pay to See Europe At War,” The Literary Digest XLIX(September 19, 1914), 491-492. The President’s call for additional tax revenue gained widespread coverage; see, for example, “Wilson Asks Congress For War Tax,” Times-Union (September 4, 1914).

81 Letter, William Lea Chambers to Woodrow Wilson, July 26, 1914, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 305-306.

82 “Wilson’s Appeal to Patriotism, Determined to Prevent Big Strike on Railroads,” Los Angeles Times (August 1, 1914).

83 Miners Accept Wilson’s Terms,” Los Angeles Times (September 17, 1914). Draft of a Tentative Basis for the Adjustment of the Colorado Strike, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 486-488. See, “Plight of the Railways Further Aggravated by War,” Wall Street Journal (October 5, 1914). From Frank J. Hayes and Others to Woodrow Wilson, September 16, 1914; and From Jesse Floyd Wellborn to Woodrow Wilson, September 18, 1914, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 31, 37, 48.

84 “Guard America From Losses By War in Europe. Wilson and Congress Move to Prevent Money Shortage and Other Ills,” Chicago Daily Tribune (August 1, 1914).

85 Ibid. “America Has Billions To Meet Emergency,” Los Angeles Times (August 1, 1914). “Extraordinary Action Taken by Financiers To Forestall a Crisis,” Atlanta Constitution (August 2, 1914). “McAdoo Calls To Financiers,” Atlanta Constitution (August 2, 1914). “Unlimited Millions Available to Banks top Meet Any Crisis,” Times-Union (August 3, 1914). “Wilson Would Protect Shipping of the World,” Atlanta Constitution (August 1, 1914), “Financial Chiefs Will Preserve Commerce. Bankers and Industrial Captains Confer With President on Nation’s Credit,” San Francisco Chronicle (August 15, 1914).

86 “Unlimited Millions Available to Banks to Meet Any Crisis,” front page.

87 “American Events in Review,” Christian Science Monitor (August 15, 1914).

88 Ibid. “Guard America From Losses by War in Europe,” Chicago Daily Tribune (August 1, 1914).

89 “War Tax Bill To Be Hurried,” Chicago Daily Tribune (September 1, 1914).

90 Address to a Joint Session of Congress (September 4, 1914), in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 473-475. “War Tax Bill To Be Hurried.” “Hundred Million War Deficit Subject of Wilson Message,” Los Angeles Times (September 3, 1914). “Cut in Revenue To Be Met With More Economy,” Christian Science Monitor (September 18, 1914).

91 Charles S. Groves, “How Official Washington Views War in Europe,” Boston Daily Globe (September 13, 1914).

92 “Congress Proceeds With Work,” Christian Science Monitor (August 19, 1914).

93 Congressional Record Index, Volume 51, 63-2, 137-138, 477. These items were listed under the headings “Europe” and “War and Preparations for War.” “Antiwar Proclamation,” Congressional Record-Senate, Volume 51, Part 14 (August 25, 1914), 14194. Congressional Record-Senate, Volume 51, Part 15(September 16, 1914), 15192.

94 “President’s Peace Proclamation,” Congressional Record-Senate, Volume 51, Part 15(September 8, 1914), 14803.

95 “America Must Intervene to End War, Says Metz,” New York Times (September 23, 1914).

96 The Ambassador in Austria-Hungary (Penfield) to the Secretary of state, Vienna, July 13, 1914, in Foreign Relations, 1914, Supplement,22-23. From Frederic Courtland Penfield, Vienna, June 28, 1914, and To Francis Joseph I, Washington, June 28, 1914, Remarks at a Press Conference, June 29, 1914, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 222-223. Wilson’s own views can be discerned in his public papers and official correspondence, the only material available to historians; see, Kurt Wimer, “Woodrow Wilson and World Order,” in Arthur S. Link, editor, Woodrow Wilson and a Revolutionary World, 1913-1921 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982), 146-150.

97 Myron Timothy Herrick to William Jennings Bryan, Paris. July 28, 1914. Rec’d 7:30 P.M., in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 313. See the editorial, “President Wilson’s Peace Proffer,” Times-Union (August 5, 1914).

98 Portions of Remarks at a News Conference, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 307.

99 Cable, Paris, Myron Timothy Herrick to WJB, July 28, 1914, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 313. The Ambassador in France (Herrick) to the Secretary of State, July 28, 1914, in Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 18.

100 From Walter Hines Page, Dear Mr. President, London July 29, 1914, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 314-316.

101 The Chargé ?Affaires in Russia (Wilson) to the Secretary of State, July 31, 1914, in Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 26.

102 Remarks at a Press Conference, July 30, 1914, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 317.

103 Robert W. Tucker, Woodrow Wilson and the Great War. Reconsidering America’s Neutrality 1914-1917 (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007), 19-24.

104 Ibid., 3-6, 49-50. Woodrow Wilson, Fourth of July address, July 4, 1917, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 248-255. “President Wilson Advises All to be Calm,” Times-Union (August 3, 1914).

105 “Wilson Pleads ‘Remain Calm’,” Chicago Daily Tribune (August 4, 1914). “Pres. Wilson Advises All To Be Calm.”

106 Quoted in “President Advises Nation to be Calm,” New York Times (August 4, 1914). “Wilson Watches War in Europe,” Los Angeles Times (August 3, 1914).

107 “Wilson Pleads ‘Remain Calm.’” “President Advises Nation to be Calm.” “Pres. Wilson Advises All To Be Calm.”

108 “U.S. Diplomats Work for Peace,” Atlanta Constitution (August 2, 1914). See the editorial, “President Wilson’s Peace Proffer,” Times-Union (August 5, 1914).

109 “U.S. Diplomats Work for Peace.” “President Wilson’s Peace Proffer.” See Wilson’s comments, Remarks at a Press Conference, August 3, 1914, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 331-335. “U.S. Diplomats Work For Peace,” Atlanta Constitution (August 2, 1914).

110 “Wilson Watches War in Europe,” Los Angeles Times (August 3, 1914).

111 The proclamation was published in its entirety in the New York Times, see “President Wilson Proclaims Our Strict Neutrality; Bars All Aid to Belligerents and Defines the Law,” New York Times (August 5, 1914).

112 “Executive Order 2011 – To Enforce Neutrality of Wireless Stations,” August 5, 1914. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http//www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=75364. “Executive Order 2012 – For the Relief, Protection and Transportation Home of Americans in Europe at the Outbreak of the European War of 1914,” August 5, 1914. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http//www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=75365.

113 From Charles William Eliot. Confidential. Dear President Wilson: Asticou, Maine 6 August 1914, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 353-354.

114 “Mrs. Wilson Dies in White House,” New York Times (August 7, 1914). “Mrs Woodrow Wilson,” The Literary Digest XLIX(August 15, 1914), 258.

115 See the letter the letter to Mary Allen Hulbert, September 6, 1914, in which he wrote with regard to the death of his wife: “I am lamed and wounded more sorely than any words I have can describe,” in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 31, 3. “President Wilson’s Trial,” Times-Union (august 6, 1914). “Mrs. Woodrow Wilson,” 258.

116 An Appeal to the American People. My fellow countrymen: [Aug. 18, 1914], in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 393-394. “President Wilson Bids All His Countrymen be Neutral Both in Speech and Action,” Christian Science Monitor (August 18, 1914). Wimer, “Woodrow Wilson and World Order,” 151-156.

117 From Edward Mandell House, with Enclosures, September 5, 1914, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 488. On the importance of House in formulating America’s war aims and peace strategy, see Inga Floto, “Woodrow Wilson: War Aims, Peace Strategy, and the European Left,” in Link, Woodrow Wilson and a Revolutionary World, 129-130; Tucker, Woodrow Wilson and the Great War, 38-49; and Godfrey Hodgson, Woodrow Wilson’s Right Hand. The Life of Colonel Edward M. House (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006).

118 Enclosure I, Edward Mandell House to Arthur Zimmerman (July 8, 1914); and Enclosure II, Edward Mandell House to William II (July 8, 1914), in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 265-267. Tucker, Woodrow Wilson and the Great War, 38. From Edward Manelll House, with Enclosures. Dear Governor: Prides Crossing, Mass. September 5th, 1914; and Enclosure I. Edward Mandell House to Arthur Zimmermann. My dear Herr Zimmermann: Washington, September 5, 1941, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 488-489.

119 Count Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff to the German Foreign Office. Washington, den 7. September 1914; and Translation. Washington, September 7, 1914, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 31, 9-10.

120 From William Jennings Bryan. My Dear Mr. President: Washington August 28, 1914, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 30, 456-457. The five responses came from the Czar, the governments of France, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, and Germany. See also the Telegram from the Belgian Foreign Minister in Ibid., 458-461. Secretary of State Bryan did not give up his plea for mediation and on December 1st he wrote to Wilson and urged the President to once more attempt to mediate; From William Jennings Bryan. My dear Mr. President: Washington December 1, 1914, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 31, 378-379.

121 A Proclamation. [Sept. 8, 1914], in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 31, 10-11. “President Sets Day To Pray for Peace,” Los Angeles Times (September 9, 1914).

122 “Wilson Bars Appeal By German-Americans,” Atlantic Constitution (September 19, 1914).

123 “Kaiser In Plea To U.S. Says Foe Uses ‘Dumdums’,” Chicago Daily Tribune (September 10, 1914).

124 A Draft of a Reply to William II, September 15, 1914; and To Count Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff, September 16, 1914, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 31, ”Wilson Replies to Protest of the Kaiser,” San Francisco Chronicle (September 17, 1914); and “President Wilson and the Kaiser,” Shanghai Times (October 2, 1914). A Draft Reply to William II, September 15, 1914; and To Count Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff, September 16, 1914, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 31, 32-33, 34-35..

125 “Who Is Responsible?,” 245-249.

126 Moore, America and the World War, 12.

127 Tucker, Woodrow Wilson and the Great War, 188-191. Kennedy, Will to Believe, 163-167, 182-186.

128 Kennedy, Will to Believe, 65. Wilson, letter to House, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 34, 271.

129 An Address to a Joint Session of Congress, April 2, 1917; and Enclosure, April 6, 1917, in Link, Papers of Woodrow Wilson, Volume 41, 519-527, 552; the quote is from page 523.