1 "One Day That Shook the World," The New Republic 104(30.Juni 1941), S. 876.

2 "Soviet Defeat Is Sure," Washington Post (22.Juni 1941).

3 Siehe Dexter Perkins, "Fundamental Principles of American Foreign Policy,"American Academy of Political Science 218 (November 1941), S. 9-19.Der Streit zwischen den Isolationisten und Interventionisten, zwischen Isolationismus und Interventionismus, ist schon oft behandelt worden, vor allem die Interessenverbände betreffend; siehe zum Beispiel Walter Johnson, The Battle Against Isolation (New York 1973) und Wayne S. Cole, America First: The Battle Against Intervention, 1940-1941 (Madison 1953), Robert G. Waite, "USA: Deutschland im öffentlichen Bewußtsein," in: Europa vor dem Abgrund. Das Jahr 1935 (Köln 2005), S. 100-117.

4 Vgl. Steven Casey, Cautious Crusade. Franklin D. Roosevelt, American Public Opinion, and the War Against Nazi Germany (Oxford 2001), S. XVIII, XVIX. Richard W. Steele, "The Great Debate: Roosevelt, the Media, and the Coming of the War, 1940-1941," in: Journal of American History 71 (June 1984), S. 67-70.

5 "FDR: Day by Day – The Pare Lorentz Chronology," Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, New York. Steele, "The Great Debate," S. 69f. Siehe die Reaktion Präsident Roosevelts, "We Are Not Yielding and We Do Not Propose to Yield," Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Band 10 (New York 1941), S. 227-228.

6 "Senatorial Reaction," Facts on File 1 (18-24. Juni 1941), S. 266."Soviet Defeat Is Sure,"Washington Post (22. Juni 1941).

7 "We Are Not Yielding and We Do Not Propose to Yield," S. 227. The Secret Diary of Harald L. Ickes, Band 1 (New York 1959), S. 112. Robert Dallek, Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1933-1945 (New York 1990), S. 124, 138-139. S. Casey, Cautious Crusade. Franklin D. Roosevelt, American Public Opinion, and the War against Nazi Germany, S. 8-14.

8 Siehe Press Conference, 24.Juni 1941, Complete Presidential Press Conferences of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Band 17-18 (New York, 1972), S. 409-410

9 Joseph Barnes und Harriet Moore, "America and the Soviet Union," Far Eastern Survey10(11. August 1941),S. 172-175. "What Americans Think of Russia," Public Opinion Quarterly 8 (Winter 1944-1945), S. 515, 527.MenoLovenstein, American Opinion of Soviet Russia (Washington, D.C. 1941), S. 161.

10 Richard W. Steele, "The Great Debate: Roosevelt, the Media, and the Coming of the War, 1940-1941," Journal of American History 71(June 1984), S. 67-70.

11 Lovenstein, American Opinion of Soviet Russia, S. 161.George C. Herring, Jr., Aid to Russia 1941-1946 (New York 1973), S. 4f..

12 Von den dreißiger bis in die fünfziger Jahre des letzten Jahrhunderts hatte in den USA der Rundfunk bei weitem die größte Resonanz aller Medien. Um 1940 besaßen, anders als in Europa, bereits neun von zehn Haushalten mindestens einen „Rundfunkempfänger", siehe William H. Young, Music of the World War II Era (Westport, Connecticut 2008), S. 105. Meinungsumfragen während des Krieges bestätigten die Bedeutung der Radiosendungen; „Die Masse des Publikums setzte mehr auf den Rundfunk als auf die Presse, wenn es um Nachrichten aus aller Welt ging," schrieb Ralph B. Levering, American Opinion and the Russian Alliance, 1939-1945 (Chapel Hill North Carolina 1976), S. 50, 54.

13 "Germans Repulsed, Reds Claim," Atlanta Constitution (23. Juni 1941). "Nazis Go To War,"Pittsburgh Press (22. Juni 1941). "Hitler Declares War on Russia," Washington Post (22. Juni 1941).Zu den Spannungen zwischen Deutschland und der Sowjet Union vor dem Angriff vgl.u.a. auch: Anne O’Hare McCormick, „Questions in the Background of Nazi-Soviet Tension" New York Times (21. Juni 1941); und "Moscow Paper Defiant," New York Times (21.Juni 1941), wo auch auf Hitlers noch in letzter Stunde vorgetragene ultimative Forderungen an Moskau eingegangen wird."Nazi Minister Tells Russian Envoy of War," Chicago Daily Tribune (22. Juni 1941) und "Text of Von Ribbentrop’s Statement on Soviet Attack," Los Angeles Times (22.Juni 1941).Es wurde vielzitiert, zum Beispiel in der Washington Post; siehe „Hitler Declares War on Russia," (22. Juni 1941); und in der Times Union (Albany, New York), "Nazis, Russia At War!.’"(22. Juni 1941). Young, Music of the World War II Era, S 105.(. auch Anm. 12) „Douglas, Hobson Urge War," und "Isolationist Reaction," Facts on File 1 (Juni 1941), S. 266.

14 "Germans Repulsed, Reds Claim," Atlanta Constitution (23. June 1941).

15 "Hitler Declares War on Russia."

16 Nazi Minister Tells Russian Envoy of War," Chicago Daily Tribune (22. Juni 1941) und "Text of Von Ribbentrop’s Statement on Soviet Attack," Los Angeles Times (22.Juni 1941).Es wurde viel zitiert, zum Beispiel in der Washington Post; siehe „Hitler Declares War on Russia," (22. Juni 1941); und in der Times Union (Albany, New York), "Nazis, Russia At War!.’"(22. Juni 1941).

17 "The Promise of Deliverance," Chicago Daily Tribune (22. June 1941). Levering, American Opinion and the Russian Alliance, 1939-1945, S. 40f."Churchill Promises British Aid to Reds; Urges U.S. To Help," Atlantic Constitution (23.Juni 1941).‘"Text of Pledge by Churchill To Give Russia Aid," Chicago Daily Tribune (23.Juni 1941).

18 "World or Ruin," Time (30.June 1941), S. 21.

19 "Experts Discern 3 Goals in Nazi Attack on Reds," Chicago Daily Tribune (23. Juni 1941).Barnet Nover, "Russia in the War," Washington Post (23.Juni 1941).Dr. George Gallup, "Shooting War Sentiment Grows," Atlanta Constitution (29. Juni 1941).

20 John T. Whitaker, "America Should Attack Nazis Now, Correspondent Believes," Los Angeles Times (24. Juni 1941)."President Urged to End Hitler Peril," New York Times (3. Juli 1941)."Ickes Bids US War as Nazis Push East," New York Times (27. Juni 1941)."A Realistic America," Christian Science Monitor (24.Juni 1941)."Douglas, Hobson Urge War," und "Isolationist Reaction," Facts on File 1 (Juni 1941), S. 266.

21 Anne O’Harre McCormick, "Europe, Crash of the House of Lies That Hitler Built," New York Times (23.Juni 1941).

22 John A. Reichmann, "Nazis Go To War Against Russia," The Pittsburgh Press (22. Juni 1941). "U.S. Gets Nazi Protest," Facts On File 1(18.-24. Juni 1941), S. 265."Germans Repulsed, Reds Claim." "Nazis Go To War."

23 Siehe Levering, American Opinion and the Russian Alliance, S. 54f. James S. Twohey, "An Analysis of Newspaper Opinion on War Issues," Public Opinion Quarterly 5(1941), S. 448-455. Schon 1939 hat Twohey, ein erfahrener Meinungsforscher, mit der systematischen Sichtung und Auswertung von Artikeln und Kommentaren aus Zeitungen begonnen, die etwa zwanzig Prozent und mehr der Bevölkerung erreichten; siehe "The Press: What Were They Saying?," Time (16. Oktober 1939).

24 Nazi Minister Tells Russian Envoy of War," und "Text of Von Ribbentrop’s Statement on Soviet Attack."

25 Hanson W. Baldwin, "Nazis Try the Blitz on Russians," New York Times (29. Juni 1941)."Eyewitness Story of Blitz on `Red Army’," Albany Times Union (23.Juni 1941). "German Armies March on Russia From Black Sea to Shores of Baltic," Los Angeles Times (22. Juni 1941). "The War Between Nazism and Communism," Hartford Courant (23. Juni 1941).

26 "How Long For Russia?," Time (30. Juni 1941), S. 22. Edward T. Folliard, "Soviet Defeat Is Sure, Say D.C. Army Men," Washington Post (22. Juni 1941). C. Brooks Peters, "Constant Advance Reported By Nazis," New York Times (24. Juni 1941).ders. , "Hitler Goes to Soviet Front; Reports Invasion ´Success’," New York Times (25.Juni 1941).ders. , "Nazis See Victory Assured in Drive," New York Times (26. Juni 1941). "American Experts Predict Nazi Victory in 90 Days," Chicago Daily Tribune (27. Juni 1941).

27 Henry W. Steiger, "Nazis Resume „Thrust to the East’," Christian Science Monitor (28. Juni 1941).

28 Walter Lippmann, "Today and Tomorrow.Russian Policy and American Defense," in Congressional Record – Appendix, Band 87, Teil 12, S. A3138f.

29 "Nazis’ Attack On Reds Said Last Fall Plan," Atlanta Constitution (26. Juni 1941). "Hitler Makes Big Play in Russian Aggression," New York Times (29. Juni 1941).

30 Press Conference. 24. Juni 1941, Nr. 750, Complete Presidential Press Conferences, S. 409.

31 Dewey L. Fleming, "Belief Strong In Washington That U.S. Will Seek To Aid Russia. Capital Sees Clue in Talk By Churchill," The Sun [Baltimore, Maryland] (23. Juni 1941)."FDR Pledges All Possible Assistance. Welles Tells Envoy Requests for Aid Will Get as Favorable Consideraton as Possible," The Hartford Courant (25.Juni 1941). Bertram D. Hulen. "Soviet Is Assured By U.S. Of Support," New York Times (27.Juni 1941).Rudolf Katz, „Schritt für Schritt," in: Neue Volkszeitung(26. Juli.1941),einem deutschsprachigen, dezidiert linksorientierten Blatt in New York. Ein Artikel über „Lease-Lend For Russia Looms As U.S. Backs Soviet," wurde durch verschiedene Presseagenturen über das ganze Land verbreitet; hier zit. n. Times Union [Albany, New York] (24. Juni 1941).

32 Lovenstein, American Opinion of Soviet Russia, S. 161. George C. Herring, Jr., Aid to Russia 1941-1946 (New York 1973), S. 4f. Joseph Barnes and Harriet Moore, "American and the Soviet Union," Far Eastern Survey10(11. August 1941), S. 174-175. "What Americans Think of Russia," Public Opinion Quarterly 8(Winter 1944-45), S. 515,527.

33 Vgl. Zum Beispiel: "Plague On Both Houses," The Pittsburgh Press (23. Juni 1941); "Hitler Invades Russia," New York Times (23. Juni 1941); und "The War Between Nazism und Communism," Hartford Courant (23. Juni 1941). "Hitler launches his war machine against Russia," Life 10(30. Juni 1941), S. 22.Twohey, "Analysis of Newspaper Opinion."

34 "German Blow Against Reds Surprises U.S.," Chicago Daily Tribune (22. Juni 1941). "FDR: Day by Day – The Pare Lorentz Chronology," FDR Library and Archives. "Roosevelt Pledges Russia Aid," Facts On File (18-24. Juni 1941), S. 266. "‘Aid To Britain. Lend-lease Report," Time (16.Juni 1941).Steele, "The Great Debate," S. 69f.

35 Roscoe Drummond, "Intimate Message: Washington. The U.S. Can’t Complain," Christian Science Monitor (23. Juni 1941).

36 "Nazi-Red War Held Warning To Nation," New York Times (26. Juni 1941).

37 Siehe Eric Sandeen, "Confessions of a Nazi Spy and the German-American Bund," American Studies 20(Fall 1970), S. 69-81; and Robert Sklar, Movie-Made America. A Cultural History of American Movies (New York, 1975).

38 "Nazis Invade Russia," Universal Newsreel, Band 13, Nr. 991, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland, Still Photos and Motion Pictures.

39 "End of Hitlerism Held Vital to U.S." New York Times (29.Juni 1941). James McGregor Burns, Roosevelt: Soldier of Freedom, 1940-1945 (London 1970), S. 156.

40 "Digest of Public Opinion," Contemporary Jewish Record IV (August 1941), S. 408f.

41 "Hitler Attacks Stalin," Christian Century LVIII (2.Juli 1941), S. 855-856."Editorial. American Aid For Russia?," Christian Century LVIII (9. Juli 1941), S. 875. John Haynes Holmes, "If Russia Wins," Christian Century LVIII(30. Juli 1941), S. 954f.

42 Zitiert in: Michigan Catholic (30. Oktober 1941) in: Congressional Record – Senate, Band 87, Teil 8, S. 8700.

43 Edwin L. James, "Hitler Makes Big Play in Russian Aggression," New York Times (29. Juni 1941).

44 "Papal Pronouncements and American Foreign Policy. Radio Address by Bishop Joseph P. Hurley," 6. Juli 1941, in Congressional Record - Appendix, Band 87, Teil 14, S. A5446ff."American Aid to Russia. Editorial from The Florida Catholic," (26. September 1941), in: Congressional Record – Appendix, and 87, Teil 14, S. A5445f. Siehe auch "Catholic Attitude on Aid to Russia. The Michigan Catholic," 30.Oktober 1941, in: Congressional Record – Senate, 10. November 1941, Band 87, Teil 8, S. 8700f."Lend-Leasing for Atheism. Radio Address of Stephen A. Day," 1. August 1941, Congressional Record – Appendix, Band 87, Teil 13, S. A3709f.

45 "Senatorial Reaction," Facts On File (22. Juni 1941), S 266.

46 "Radio Address by Hon. Gerald P. Nye, of North Dakota," Congressional Record – Appendix, Band 87, Teil 12, S. A3074-3077.Cole, America First.

47 "Invasion of Soviet Relieves Britain, Hoover Declares," Washington Post (23. Juni 1941), und "Hoover Comment," Hartford Courant (23.Juni 1941).Siehe auch "Hoover Opposes Aid To Russia", Facts on File, Band I, Nr. 35 (25. Juni – 1 Juli 1941), S. 273. „Arm, But Avoid Entry in War, Hoover Urges," Chicago Daily Tribune (30. Juni 1941).

48 Congressional Record – House, 24.Juni 1941, S. 5460f..

49 "Radio Address by Hon. Gerald P. Nye, of North Dakota."

50 "Radio Address by Hon. Robert A. Taft, of Ohio,"Ebd.,S. A3077f. "Lest We Forget – Why Aid Russia? Extension of Remarks of Ho. Fred Bradley of Michigan," Ebd. S. A3206f. "President Franklin Roosevelt’s Annual Message [Four Freedoms] to Congress," 6.Januar 1941, Records of the United States Senate, National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 46.

51 "The Lease-Lend Bill and Communist Russia," und ."The Threat of Communism,"Congressional Record – House (28.Juni 1941), S. 5669, 5759.

52 "Radio Address by Hon. Robert A. Taft," S. A3077

53 Zitiert in "Soviet Defeat Is Sure.", "U.S. Studies Lease-Lend Aid To Soviet," Albany [New York] Times Union (23. Juni 1941).Lyle C. Wilson‚"`Stop Hitler´ Is Big Issue Facing U.S.," The Pittsburgh Press (23. Juni 1941).

54 "U.S. Studies Lease-Lend Aid To Soviet," Albany [New York] Times Union (23. Juni 1941).

55 The Secret Diary of Harald L. Ickes, Band 1 (New York 1959), S. 112. Dallek, Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, S. 124, 138-139.

56 Siehe Gabriel A. Almond, The American People and Foreign Policy (New York 1950), S 4-8. Casey, Cautious Crusade, S. 16-19. Die Methoden der Meinungsforschung sowie George Gallup und Elmo Roper sind ausführlich beschrieben und kritisch besprochen in Adam J. Berinsky, "American Public Opinion in the 1930s and 1940s," (28. April 2004), http//web.mit.edu/berinsky/www/QCS.pdf. Sämtliche Gallup Polls sind in seiner mehrbändigen Studie The Gallup Pol labgedruckt, weitere Meinungsumfragen in: Hadley Cantril, Hrsg., Public Opinion, 1935-1946 (Princetion, NJ, 1951).

57 "German Blow Against Reds Surprises U.S.," Chicago Daily Tribune (22. Juni 1941). "FDR: Day by Day – The Pare Lorentz Chronology." "Roosevelt Pledges Russia Aid," Facts On File (18-24. Juni 1941), S. 266. "‘Aid To Britain. Lend-lease Report," Time (16.Juni 1941).

58 "Shooting War Sentiment Grows." Harry Willmer Jones, "The President, Congress, and Foreign Relations," California Law Review XXIX (Juli 1941), S. 566, 573ff.

59 Zitiert in Lyle C. Wilson‚"`Stop Hitler´ Is Big Issue Facing U.S.," The Pittsburgh Press (23. Juni 1941).

60 Walter Lippmann, "Today and Tomorrow. Small Demands Small Effort," Los Angeles Times (24. Juni 1941).

61 Levering, American Opinion and the Russian Alliance, S. 44. Lester Markel, Public Opinion and Foreign Policy (New York 1949), S. 19.

62 "Fortune and Gallup Poll," Public Opinion Quarterly 5 (Autumn 1941), S. 477. "Fortune and Gallup Poll," Public Opinion Quarterly 4 (March 1940), S. 99. Siehe Umfrage vom 29. Juni in Gallup, The Gallup Poll, Band 1, S. 286. Gabriel A. Almond, The American People and Foreign Policy (New York 1950), S. 93.

63 Dr. George Gallup, "The Gallup Poll," Washington Post (2. Juli 1941). "Gallup and Fortune Polls," Public Opinion Quarterly 5 (Winter 1941), S. 675. C. Brooks Peters, "Nazis See Victory," New York Times (30. Juni 1941).

64 George Gallup, "Survey Finds 76% Back Roosevelt," New York Times (27. Juni 1941).George Gallup, "War Trend Found Gaining Slightly," New York Times (29. Juni 1941). "Dr. Gallup Reveals: Shooting War Sentiment Grows," Atlanta Constitution (29. Juni 1941). George Gallup, "United States War Sentiment Rises to 24%," Washington Post (29. Juni 1941).

65 "Nazi Attack On Reds Viewed As `Best News of the War`,’’ The Sun [Baltimore, Maryland] (23. Juni 1941).

66 Ebd.

67 Cantril, Public Opinion, S. 1102, 1162.

68 "You Don’t Have to Love the Communists to Help Russia Stop the Nazis," PM (30. September 1941), in Congressional Record – Appendix, Band 87, Teil 13, S. A4444.

69 Cantril, Public Opinion, S. 1102, 1162. „Gallup and Fortune Polls", Public Opinion Quarterly 5(Winter 1941), S. 677.

70 "The President Finds That the Defense of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Is Vital to the Defense of the United States and Directs the Lend-Lease Administration to Expedite the Transfer of Supplies to Russia," in The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Band 10, Nr. 481, S. 111.

71 Steele, "The Great Debate: Roosevelt, the Media, and the Coming of the War, 1940-1941," S. 67-70.

72 "FDR Pledges All Possible Assistance. Welles Tells Envoy Requests for Aid Will Get as Favor able Consideraton as Possible," The Hartford Courant (25.Juni 1941).Bertram D. Hulen. "Soviet Is Assured By U.S. Of Support", New York Times (27.Juni 1941).Zustimmend natürlich auch: Rudolf Katz, „Schritt für Schritt," in: Neue Volkszeitung [New York] (26. Juli. 1941).

73 "Gallup and Fortune Polls," Public Opinion Quarterly 5(Winter 1941), S. 681.

74 "You Don’t Have to Love the Communists to Help Russia Stop the Nazis," PM (30. September 1941), in Congressional Record – Appendix, Band 87, Teil 13,, S. A4444-44445.

75 Pressekonferenz, Nr. 775, 14. Oktober 1941, Complete Presidential Press Conferences of Franklin D. Roosevelt, S. 228. "White House Statement Announcing That Aid Is Being Hastened to Russia," 13.Oktober 1941; und "The President Finds That the Defense of the USSR Is Vital to the Defense of the United States and Directs the Lend-Lease Administration to Expedite the Transfer of Supplies to Russia," 7. November 1941, The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Band 10, S. 418, 481.